The Rupea Fortress is one of the oldest archeological vestiges on the Romanian territory, the first signs of human settlements dating from the Paleotic and Early Neolithic (5,500-3,500 BC). The first documentary attestation dates from 1324 when the Saxons rebelled against King Carol Robert of Hungary took refuge inside the fortress, Castrum Kuholm. The name Kuholom refers to the rock on which it was built: basalt. Documents from the 15th century mention the fortress as an important commercial and handicraft center, with 12 guilds. Over time, the fortress served as a fortification but also a refuge for the population living in the surrounding hills and valleys, its location being strategic: at the junction of roads connecting Transylvania, Moldova and Romania through the southeastern steps.